about 3500 BC
Civilization sprang up in the Indus River valley.
about 1700 BC
Aryan tribes invaded India and settled mainly in the Punjab
region of India. Their arrival set off a series of wars.
Alexander the Great began to conquer India before his own
troops forced him to turn back.
about AD 150-450
Sanskrit culture thrived under the Kushan Empire, and later
under the Gupta Empire. Trade with the Middle East and the Roman Empire
greatly enriched India.
Invading Huns under Mihirakula destroyed Gupta power in India.
Islamic invaders from Afghanistan overran much of northern
India. They founded the Delhi Sultanate.
The Mongol conqueror Tamerlane sacked Delhi. The Delhi
Sultanate split into small warring kingdoms.
The Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama arrived at Calicut.
Portugal soon dominated Indian Ocean trade.
The English East India Company was founded.
English East India Company forces under Robert Clive won
control of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey. The company soon began expanding
The Sepoy Mutiny erupted. Indian forces massacred British
residents at Delhi, Lucknow, and many other places. The revolt was later
crushed by British forces, and the British government assumed full control of
The Indian National Congress was founded.
British forces killed more than 400 Indians and wounded over
1200 in the Amritsar Massacre.
Mohandas Gandhi introduced nonviolent tactics that transformed
the Indian independence movement into a popular campaign.
British India was divided into the independent states of India
and Pakistan. Jawaharlal Nehru became India’s first prime minister.
Mohandas Gandhi was assassinated.
India exploded an atomic bomb, altering the balance of power
in South Asia.
Prime minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by Sikh members
of her security guard.
Tensions increased between India and Pakistan over the
continuing conflict in Jammu and Kashmr.
Elections swept the Congress Party from power and awarded the
Bharatiya Janata Party the highest number of parliament seats. No party won a
majority, making a coalition government necessary.