Julius Caesar completed the Roman conquest of Gaul.
Frankish ruler Charles Martel halted the advance of Muslim
armies in Europe, routing them between Tours and Poitiers.
Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Romans. After his death
his kingdom was divided between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
Avignon served as the seat of the papal court.
France defeated England in the Hundred Years’ War.
Louis XIV ruled France. Absolute royal authority was
consolidated during his reign.
The French Revolution overthrew the monarchy. France became
involved in a series of wars with European powers that lasted until 1815.
Napoleon I, who took power in 1799, declared the First Empire
Napoleon was defeated and the monarchy was restored. A year
later Napoleon returned to power, but was ultimately defeated at the Battle of
Revolution led to the declaration of the Second Republic.
Napoleon III declared the Second Empire.
Prussia defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War, ending the
Second Empire. The Third Republic was founded.
France fought on the side of the Allies during World War I.
Much of the war was fought on French soil.
Germany invaded France and occupied about two-thirds of the
country during World War II (1939-1945). The unoccupied zone came under the
control of Marshal Henri Pétain, who largely collaborated with the Germans.
After World War II, France adopted a new constitution and the
Fourth Republic was founded.
France was a founding member of the European Economic
Charles de Gaulle, who came out of retirement to address the
crisis over the French war with Algeria, was elected president after a new
constitution established the Fifth Republic.
France granted independence to Algeria after a long and bloody
civil war with the colony.
Unrest by students set off a general strike throughout France,
which helped bring about de Gaulle’s resignation the following year.
The Socialist party, led by François Mitterrand, came to power
in the general elections. Mitterrand was reelected to a second seven-year term
as president in 1988.
The tunnel under the English Channel was completed, linking
France and Great Britain.
Jacques Chirac, founder and leader of the Rassemblement pour
la République (Rally for the Republic) party, was elected the new president of
France, replacing the retiring François Mitterrand.
Jaque Chirac defeats the right-wing extremist, Jean-Marie Le