Make your own free website on Tripod.com
Home Articles Politics Quotes Records Sports History Did you know? Jokes Science

GLOBALIZATION ............... ............... ............... ...............

WHAT IS THE FUSS ALL ABOUT?

Globalization is about turning the world into a small village and making trade between nations easier. This sounds great. It does have some advantages which include fast and efficient communication. However, its disadvantages are fatal. Moreover, the advantages mentioned may only benefit the rich nations.

WHAT IS WRONG WITH GLOBALIZATION?

One aspect of globalization is that tariffs (money and duties spent on imported goods) are decreasing day after day.

This may sound great because this will make imported goods cheaper.....but no, it's not great.

Let's say, for example, that a group of small factories in a poor country sell t-shirts and employ huge number of workers.

With tariffs imposed on imported t-shirts, imported t-shirts will become much more expensive than the t-shirts produced by that poor country. Therefore, the people of that country will buy the t-shirts of their own nation.

However, as tariffs decrease, imported goods will become cheaper. As the difference in price between the imported t-shirts and the t-shirts of that poor nation decreases, more people will decide to buy the imported t-shirts and fewer will buy t-shirts from their own nation.

As a result, the factories will start to make losses. It will have to make many workers redundant. Gradually, the factories will start to close down. Thousands of workers will lose their jobs. Not only will the t-shirts' industry will suffer, but all of the other industries. People will become poorer and poorer.

But who will benefit? The rich nations!!!

Believe it or not....... this has already started. Here are just a few facts to prove this:

bullet

Industrial sectors have collapsed in the developing world

bullet

Senegal lost one third of its size and 40% of its workers lost their jobs

bullet

Egypt, which used to export cotton to every single nation in the world; is now importing much more cotton than it exports. Many skilled and un-skilled workers have lost their jobs.

bullet

In its last repot, the Economic Co-Operation Organization said that in the last few decades, the living standards of 20% of the world's population have deteriorated

bullet

in 1960, the richest 20% of the world's population had 30 times the income of the poorest 20%- today, the richest have 74 times as much (SOURCE: Lindsey Hilsum in Globalisation and poverty report for Channel 4 News)

bullet

"A recent World Bank paper, by Lundberg and Squire, shows that "greater openness to trade is negatively correlated with income growth among the poorest 40 per cent of the population". As the population of developing countries is over 5 billion people, the 'poorest 40 per cent' amount to over 2 billion people." (SOURCE: John Madeley, journalist, UK)

bullet

"The neoliberal economic policies of the 1980s (in Costa Rica) increased social discontent and labor tensions, Excelsior reports, evoking an "intense attack by unionists, popular organizations," and others against the Arias administration, which has implemented these measures in conformity with U.S. demands and the priorities of privileged sectors. " (SOURCE: The Victors, by Noam Chomsky)

bullet

"The following is an example of the changes under globalisation which suggest that trade is not the primary issue. In 1999 the value of global exports totalled US$7 trillion. In the same year the value of sales by the 690,000 foreign affiliates of the world's 63,000 TNCs (Transnational or Multi-national Corporations) was nearly double, at US$13.5 trillion. It's also significant that while worldwide exports tripled in the period from 1982 to 1999, the sales by TNCs' foreign affiliates increased six times – at twice the rate (UN World Investment Report 2000). What this suggests is that free trade is not really about increasing the flow of goods and services across borders, but in increasing the dominance and control of local markets by TNCs. More fundamentally, it increases our dependence on these TNCs." (SOURCE: The Success of Being Dangerous: Resisting Free Trade and Investment Regimes, by Gerald Greenfield)

 

bullet

Here is how the rank of living standards of the following nations have changed over the last few decades:

Egypt: 112th to 120th  Syria: 81st to 111th Saudi Arabia: 70th to 98th

bullet

Here is how the ratio of growth rate between the richest nations and the poorest nations changed:

Year Richest 5% nations: Poorest 5% nations
1960 30:1
1990 60:1
2000 75:1

PS: The new negotiations which are currently being taken place between the rich nations and the poor nations are based on the same principles which resulted in the above tragedies!!!

The trend is that poor nations come from the south while the rich nations come from the north.
bullet"In Egypt, the consumer price index (1995 = 100) rose from 21 in 1980-85 to 112 in 1992-1997. Also the food price index rose from 23 to 112. Yes, some may argue that the GNP (Gross National Product) per capita rose from 640 to 1,200 ($US) respectively, but those who know how the income is distributed and the descrepancy between the upper 5% and the lower 5% would know that not only the poor, but unfortunately the middle class also has been left to deal with the high prices and a relatively stable (if not dwindling) income. (SOURCE: World Bank CD ROM)
bullet"What has been happening to poverty? What has been happening to unemployment? What has been happening to inequality? As we have been able to see in many valuable (theoretically and empirically) contributions in this conference these structural problems have been growing worse in the majority of poor countries during the last two decades. Thus, it seems to be apologetic to call this result "development", even if per capita income or GNP doubled." (SOURCE: Rafael Arias, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, currently doing a Ph.D. at the Geography Department of the University of Minnesota, US)
bullet"between 1991 and 1999 there were 1,035 changes worldwide in laws on foreign investment. Of those changes, 94 per cent increased the freedom of foreign investors and reduced government regulation (UN World Investment Report 2000). The effect of such changes is not only to force policy-making and the judicial process to become more like the US, but to restrict the future possible actions of governments and isolate them from the pressure of labour and social movements." (SOURCE: The Success of Being Dangerous: Resisting Free Trade and Investment Regimes, by Gerald Greenfield)
 

WHAT DO THE RICH COUNTRIES CLAIM?

Those who support globalization claim that it will cause more competition and therefore different companies will have to improve quality and decrease prices, and as they claim, this will benefit the consumers. Therefore, they believe that this competition is fair.

But the difference between the industries in the rich nations and the industries in the poor nations is so great that any strong competitions will, and currently does, eliminate many industries in the developing world.

One reason why the rich nations are rich and the poor nations are poor is that the rich have colonized the poor world and robbed all of their resources (farmland, mines, labour, etc.) and left the poor with little to survive on. And now, the developed world is talking about openness, free trade and fair competition where the poor will suffer even more!!!
bullet

"My experience in working with several local communities in rural villages of Java, Indonesia, indicates that they actually have a lot of potentials to be relatively self-sustaining communities but are now endangered to be succumbing to external and more powerful forces. This tells us that before barriers are widely opened, local capacity needs to be Strengthened. Fair competition is only a buzzword when the playing field is not leveled. And strengthening local communities need different time and pace that are particularly fitting for the communities individually." (SOURCE: Wicak Sarosa, Indonesia/US)

bullet

"According to World Bank figures,
bullet

average per capita income in Argentina fell from $1,990 in 1980 to $1,630 in 1988.

bullet

Mexico's GNP declined for seven straight years.

bullet

Real wages in Venezuela has fallen by a third since 1981, to the 1964 level.

bullet

Argentina allotted 20 percent of its budget to education in 1972, 6 percent in 1986.

bullet

David Felix, a leading specialist on Latin American economics, writes that per capita output and real investment per worker declined sharply in the 1980s, the latter falling to below 1970 levels in most of the heavily indebted countries,

bullet

where urban real wages are in many cases 20 percent to 40 percent below 1980 levels, even below 1970 levels.

bullet

The brain drain quickened and physical and human capital per head shrank because of the decline of public and private investment and collapse of infrastructure.

bullet

 Much of the sharp deterioration of the 1980s, Felix and others conclude, can be traced to the free-market restructuring imposed by the industrial powers. " (SOURCE: The Victors II, by Noam Chomsky)

bullet

"… there is no justification for the claim that globalisation is delivering benefits for all, and secondly, there is ample evidence showing that millions of poor and vulnerable people have been adversely affected. …. UNCTAD's review of the evidence in the World Investment Report 1999 found no systematic link between liberalisation and the quantity of inward investment flows" (SOURCE: Barry Coates, World Development Movement, UK)

bullet

"The shibboleth of rising tides lifting all boats seems to be refuted experientially in virtually all instances. (Including, by the way, the US, where the last 20 years have seen the most massive upward transfer of wealth in the history of the world.) But a person of "middle class" income and the lowest pauper are on an equal footing if both suffer from a cancer for which medical treatment is unavailable in the part of the world where they live. Both are on an equal footing if their common drinking water is a broth of salmonella or of heavy metals. Or if their children can look forward to an equally blank future…..Both the exclusive emphasis on calculations with averages, and the exclusive monetary emphasis, virtually disregarding all the conditions that make life livable and productive, seem counter to experiential reality. Neoliberalism thus appears to be a radically false description of the way societies really work." (SOURCE: Walter Grant, US)

bullet

"Time was when an entrepreneur [in Malawi] could start some little enterprise and make some money over time (after all initiative pays). The entrepreneur could count on real return, on borrowing at affordable interest rates, on getting honest and trustful workers. Not anymore. Inflation is a fixture (from all the progressively more expensive imports), interest rates above 50%, and workers too preoccupied with their own survival battles or too debilitated to give an honest days work. Yes money can be made, by importing from the developed economies and the Asian Tigers at lower cost than can generally be produced locally, so you close your local farm or factory, rightsize, dabble in ecommerce and pour your excess profits on competing in life style with the Joneses in Silicon Valley.It is globalisation after all. Money can also be made by growing things for export on foreign owned commercial farms, yes the hungry growing locally inedible vegetables for export, at nonsurvival wages. Money can be made by laying your hands on the national till or whatever till you find nearest you. After all isn't the seizing of opportunity, any opportunity, the essence of capitalism which is the driving force behind liberalisation and globalisation. No money can be made by the villager working her own land (the most ready resource available to the villager), when she cannot afford the few bags of fertilizers, the seeds and the insecticides, courtesy of the structural adjustments,the liberalization, the removal of support systems and the massive devaluations." (SOURCE: Eunice Kazembe, Malawi's Ambassador to Taiwan)

bullet

"Since 1950, exports have grown from 8 percent to 26.4 percent of World Gross Domestic Product. We should expect this rapid globalization to have pushed real World GDP to unprecedented heights. Unfortunately this hasn't happened. I recently conducted a statistical analysis, using World Bank and WTO data, to see if a significant relationship existed between the growth in world trade and world GDP. It doesn't. To be specific, the correlation between the growth of World Trade and that of World GDP is so low as to be statistically insignificant. The rosy view of globalization presented by western governments and the main international trade and finance agencies appears, therefore, to be no more than an unsubstantiated theory. And the evidence suggests that the theory is wrong. (SOURCE: Jeremy Fox, management consultant/writer, UK)
 

WHY CAN'T THE POOR NATIONS BENEFIT?

The facts are very simple. History says that economic protection (i.e. imposing tariffs on imported goods) has been an important factor in improving the economy.

The new joke is that getting rid of trade barriers will benefit both the rich and the poor. But this has never worked with any nation before.

Just a few more facts:
bullet

Poor people make up one quarter of the world population (SOURCE: Kofi Annan, General Secretary of the United Nations, speaking on 17/7/1997)

bullet

1.3 billion people in the developing world live with less than 1$ earned per day (NOTE: in the USA, the minimum wage is 7$ per hour) (SOURCE: 1997 United Nations Human Development Report)

bullet

507 million adults die in the poor world before they turn 40

bullet

two-thirds of Asia's population is under 30 years

bullet

50% of Vietnamese were born after 1975 (i.e. are about 25 years old)

bullet

"The market seems to be cornerstone of all theories of globalisation. Market is an efficient instrument of allocation of resources. But it is not a strategic instrument. It does not invest in future… it has a very narrow and short term view which incapacitates it take into account those who are not seen as profit potential. A globalising marketplace has no space or time for the poor. Poor hardly have anything to sell. They have many things to buy but lack the purchasing power. How poor can influence markets if they have nothing to sell and cannot pay a price to buy anything. Globalisation may improve growth rates, increase productivity, enhance technological capability BUT CANNOT REDISTRIBUTE CREATED WEALTH AND INCOME IN FAVOUR OF THE POOR. IN FACT IT DOES THE REVERSE - IT REDISTRIBUTES WEALTH AND INCOME IN FAVOUR OF THE NOT SO POOR..

The main cause of poverty is the market, not market failure." (SOURCE: N. Srinivasan, development banker, India)
 

bullet

"Automobile manufacturers know the economic capacities of African economies do not allow the population to participate effectively in the consumption of the products that may come from their factories. This means profit realization for the globalized automobile manufacturer in Africa is likely to be severly thwarted. It is defensible to deduce, thus far, that globalization as currently defined, is not development inclined; rather it is a profit maximization arrangement. In this regard, the marginalization of Africa in the globalization construct should not be surprising." (SOURCE: R.Adu-Asare, online editor of africanewscast, Ghana)

According to a Uruguayan economist, Juan Barrios, this is what a free market usually does in a poor nation:

LIBERATING THE MARKET

FREER COMPETITIVE MARKETS

THE FITTEST WINS THE COMPETITION

WEALTHY GET WEALTHIER

POOR GET POORER

HIGHER INEQUALITY

LESS ECONOMIC GROWTH

MORE POVERTY
bullet

"Does openness reduce poverty through growth? Or is it the case that countries that have been successful in terms of growth and rate of capital accumulation have been able to open and reduce poverty after they have accumulated a "critical mass" of human and physical capital? I want to support the latter hypothesis rather than the former. As the East Asian experience suggests, a strong State actively involved in resource allocation (including "trade distorting policies") is critical to achieve that "critical mass" of capital, know-how, etc. But once that "critical mass" of physical and human capital is accumulated, there is a "critical need" to open and use trade policies actively to promote competion and discipline firms." (SOURCE: Pavel Isa, from the Dominican Republic; involved with the NGO movement in Central America and the Caribbean; currently a Ph.D. Candidate in Economics at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA)

bullet

"under the WTO regime the arrangement of power between countries freezes the members of the WTO into a hierarchy of 'developed', 'developing' and 'least-developed.' By banning certain kinds of industrial and development policies in the 'developing' and 'least-developed' countries and increasing overall dependency on TNCs, the WTO regime ensures that only those countries which are already 'developed' stay at the top of this hierarchy." (SOURCE: The Success of Being Dangerous: Resisting Free Trade and Investment Regimes, by Gerald Greenfield)
 

WHY CAN'T THE POOR NATIONS EXPORT PRIMARY PRODUCTS (i.e. FOOD, OIL, etc.)?

The supporters of globalization claim that the products of the developing nations can now be sold in the developed world at cheaper prices. They claim that fruits and vegetables are now invading European markets.

Well....is that how the poor countries will prosper? By selling cheap goods? There has not been a single nation throughout history which has prospered with the help of primary products (with the exception of the Gulf nations which only have some temporary prosperity).

How could the poor nations depend on food products if many of them can't even feed their own people? Why should they depend on potatoes and tomatoes? Why don't they depend on computers and machinery? Why don't the poor countries have the right to industrialize?

And anyway, if you think there is any hope that the poor nations can earn anything from selling potatoes and tomatoes read this.......:
bullet

European governments help their farmers by paying $350 billion yearly (i.e. $1 billion daily). As a result, European products are getting cheaper and having higher quality than farming products than the poor nations

bullet

"Between October 1999-February 2000 I worked on the streets of Nairobi among the street children (as part of my research) and their plight, their stories make one ashamed to be part of a system, global and/or local that puts children in such vulnerable situations." (SOURCE: Wambui Gathenya, Kenya, Ph.D student at OISE/University of Toronto, Canada, in Theory and Policy Studies)

bullet

"The problem of overproduction is resolved by dumping goods in our markets, depriving our producers from competing in a level global marketplace. Also with the constant change and improvement in technology, few and few workers are needed to produce the same amount of goods and services. This leads to a growing number of unemployed not only in the industrialized countries but complete marginalization in the Third World. In other words, on a global scale, technology and capitalist model of flexible accumulation is creating a huge army of unnemployed. In the capital city of African countries, for example, the unemployment rate is more than 35 percent. With the demise of labour intensive industries and the peasant agricultural systems, there are no employment opportunities for our youth and we expect them to be a productive part of the global economy. How is this possible?" (SOURCE: Joseph Ngu, economist, UN Economic Commission for Africa)

bullet

"Global food production continues to outstrip population growth - I believe the current estimate is in the region of 1.3:1. I remember reading in the 1980's that the 'rich, industrial' countries produced more than 7 - 8 times as much, in terms of industrial goods, as the whole world needed to live comfortably. It is also estimated that the amount of money spent on arms every two weeks would be enough to provide the entire world with adequate food, clothing, water, education, housing and health care for a year!" (SOURCE: Ross Copeland, lecturer in economics, University of Kassel, Germany)

bullet

"In short, any serious discussion aimed at addressing poverty will start by acknowledging that our economic system no longer serves us. It creates this poverty and is destroying our biosphere. We need to be talking about alternative models, coming up with a system that will serve all of humanity whilst preserving the planet and the other life forms with which we share it. It is time for an economic system that places the needs of the many above the greed of the few!" (SOURCE: Ross Copeland, lecturer in economics, University of Kassel, Germany)

bullet

Two thirds of the world population lack either enough energy-rich foods or protein or both in their diet. Poor nations are unable to pay for the surplus food for rich ones (SOURCE: World Of Ecology, by Julian Ford-Robertson)

bullet

Every year 100,000 Indian children go blind because they don't eat enough carrots (which contains vitamin A for eyesight) (SOURCE: Teach Yourself Sociology)

bullet

Although Nigeria is the 6th world producer of oil:
bullet

about half of its population cannot read and write

bullet

only 38% of the population have access to clean water

bullet

one out of every 2 citizens earns less than 30 cents per day- way under the poverty line of 1US$ per day (compared with the minimum wage of 7 $ per hour in the USA)

bullet

there is one doctor to every 6440 persons

bullet

it has a foreign debt of 34 billion US$

bullet

it is ranked 199th out of 209 nations in life standards, according to the World Bank (SOURCE: Al Jazeera Channel)

bullet

In Egypt, a typical doctor who has studied for 9 years for a Masters Degree earns 2 US$ per day and a typical teacher erans 1 US$ per day while a worker in McDonalds in the USA earns 7 US$ per hour

IF GLOBALIZATION IS SO DESTRUCTIVE, WHY DID THE NATIONS OF THE POOR WORLD AGREE TO IT?

Well, some poor nations claim that if they don't agree to it then they will be isolated from the rest of the world. Also, rich countries put pressure on the poor governments to force them to lift trade barriers, e.g. by reducing foreign aid or not decreasing foreign debt.

But the most important reason is that the governments of the poor nations do not represent their people. They are nothing but a bunch of puppets, achieving the benefits of the western nations (especially America) and at the same time turning the lives of their own people into hell. Click here . In fact, many of the dictators of the Third World actually make it HARDER for its exporters to export by imposing taxes on them while at the same time, they are making importing easier. How on Earth  can they enhance their economies?
bullet

"It's not just the absence of democracy in the WTO and NAFTA that is the problem, but the outright hostility towards democracy. Aggressively cutting back our ability to impose democratic priorities on capital is not an afterthought – it lies at the very heart of the globalisation project. It also reminds us that the entire WTO process of becoming a member and obeying the rules rests on threats and coercion. It's the threat of trade sanctions that drives it, not human needs or common sense." (SOURCE: The Success of Being Dangerous: Resisting Free Trade and Investment Regimes, by Gerald Greenfield)

bullet

"We have to admit that democracy was destroyed  was destroyed in Nigeria since its beginning. The occupying forces have destroyed it when they have left Nigeria and they were willing to have an alternative government . So they have forged everything since the beginning, including the elections. The British are the ones who rig the elections. They have forged everything - even the population statistics were forged so that the authority would remain in the hands of those who could facilitate their work." (SOURCE: Wooly Shubenika, Nigerian Nobel Prize winner for Literature)

Unemployment is increasing rapidly in the poor world. Not only do unskilled workers lose their jobs, but there are also many doctors, scientists and engineers who study for many years, many of them have very high qualifications, but end up with no job. The poor world is a graveyard for geniuses.

Many such skilled workers leave their nations and decide to work in the west. As a result, the west will benefit from their intelligence while the poor nations will lose precious labour. Here are more facts to know:
bullet

According to the United Nations, the number of scientists, doctors and engineers who leave the poor nations to go to the rich nations, per day is 1000!!!

bullet

"Many African scholars get prizes in Western universities - and this makes some foreigners puzzled.. I have been asked the following question by friends from other races: why is that you Africans are intelligent but African institutions don't perform? My quick short answer (even if unsatisfactory) has always been: there is a difference between individual learning (performance) and organisational learning/performance. This point is important and I have raised it as one of the research questions. Development is a human activity system ( performance), it is not just about having some nice policy. I hope anyone who has a direct role to play in advising on development in the African context will think about it." (SOURCE: Ernest Mudogo, academic, Tanzania/New Zealand)

bullet

"The sad part is that due to geopolitical situation and priorities, the political elites in theWestern world find it in their advantage to overlook the political and economic abuses in the Arab world. It is for this reason, the Arab people mistrust globalization." (SOURCE: Abbas Ali, writer, Arab-American)

bullet

"In 4 developing countries out of five, the share of wages in manufacturing value-added, today is considerably below what it was in the 1970s and early 1980s." (SOURCE: United Nations Trade and Development Report, 1997).

bullet

"Even if (a big if) the poorest quintile of the global population has more real wealth than it did a generation ago, the gap between it and the richest quintile has increased, so the poor quintile's ability to influence global policy has actually decreased; in other words, in terms of power, the rising tide (if it exists) has not lifted all boats in all ways. Increased money is an inferior substitute for increased power, because any economic downturn, perhaps as a consequence of global environmental change, will see the most powerless suffer first.' (SOURCE: Colin Butler, PhD student, Australia)

bullet

"It is striking how few goods are imported which facilitate production, compared with spending on superfluous things. Leisure is necessary for people whether rich or poor, but is it appropriate to spend resources on chewing gum instead of water-treatment chemicals? The answer to questions like this isn’t easy, since the governments of economically satellite countries don’t have the power (in the face of pressure from international organisations) to reduce (or tax) the importation of goods which are not necessary for development" (SOURCE: Luiz Augusto de Giordano Rocha, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina )

bullet

"It is in this context that I think globalisation is to be seen. For one, it is prescribing a continuation of the existing structures. For another, and that is what makes it deadly, it is disempowering marginalised people and their duly elected representatives and empowering processes and institutions that are controlled by people who do not even seem to understand what poverty is except from a very abstract, de-humanised and numbers perspective." (SOURCE: Shankar Venkateswaran, ActionAid (NGO), India)

bullet

"There is mass poverty even in countries endowed with huge amounts of natural resources. Rather than grapple with the issues that are relevant to development for their countries and peoples (democracy, education and technological training, increased production,developing the conditions for succeeding in foreign trade and competition for foreign investments) most governing regimes are interested in theirs/their tribes staying power and how to increase their Swiss bank accounts. Globalization (participation in international economic activities), undertaking reforms to meet World Trade Organization (WTO) rules for joining the international trading system are just waved aside as mere talk by developed countries trying to impose their will on developing countries. Africans, they say, should approach these problems at their pace and in their own particular manner. Now as we know, when it comes to international trade in the 21st century, there is no place for an African way and there is no place for slow achievers either." (SOURCE: John Mucho Ngundam, Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Ecole Polytechnique, University of Yaounde, Cameroon)

bullet

"Those who promote globalization know that it is a cultural and economic expression of the silent wars in the march of civilization. Africans and other victims of globalization need to be fully aware that they themselves construct and narrate their own victimhood. Let's face it: why should the dominant powers in the world not want to impose their frameworks of domination? Just consider the slave mentality of even those we elect to lead our countries?" (SOURCE: Obododimma Oha, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis, Senegal)

bullet

"Countries such as Chile and South Korea still have strong capital controls. In Korea, the restrictions were so strong that you could get the death penalty for circumventing them.

If you look at Latin America and East Asia, they diverged sharply in the 1980s. Up until then they were developing more or less at the same rate. One major factor is that Latin America has no capital controls. So the capital flow out of Latin America in the 1980s was enormous, similar to the level of the Latin American debt.

That didn't happen in South Korea and Taiwan because they don't allow it. There the state is powerful enough to control the rich as well as the poor. And the effect is that they don't have a debt crisis, they maintain capital internally." (SOURCE: The Tyranny of Globalisation, by Noam Chomsky)

WHAT ABOUT MULTI-NATIONAL COMPANIES?

 
bullet

"I would define globalisation as the freedom for my group of companies to invest where it wants when it wants, to produce what it wants, to buy and sell where it wants, and support the fewest restrictions possible coming from labour laws and social conventions." (Percy Barnevik, President of the ABB Industrial Group)

Many capitalists of the northern world claim that multi-national companies (companies operating in more than one nation) of the north help the southern nations by providing them with many benefits. They claim that they are providing jobs for the poor, which otherwise would not have been available without them. But the truth is different.

First of all, the management of such multi-national companies is military style. The workers are treated like animals. Here are some facts:
Company Label Factory in China Wages per Hour Hours per week Conditions
Wal-Mart/Kathie Lee handbags Liang Shi Handbag Factory $0.13 to 0.23$ 60-70; 10-hour shifts; 6-7 days a week Dirty, cramped dorms, 10 to a room; no factory fire exits; for 70 hours a week, warehouse workers earn $3.44; no benefits; no legal work contract; workers have never heard of Conduct
Nike Athletic Shoes Wellco Factory $0.16 77-84; 11 to 12-hour shifts; 7 days a week Workers fined if they refuse to work overtime; overtime rate not paid; most had no legal work contract; humiliation, screaming, some corporal punishment; arbitrary fining of pregnant women and older (25 years old and up) women; fines if talking at work; approximately 10 children in the sewing section; most workers have never heard of Nike's Code of Conduct
Ann Taylor and Preview Kang Yi Fashion Manufacturers $0.14 96; 7 days a week; 7 am to midnight Workers have never heard of a Code of Conduct; 6 to 10 workers in dorm rooms
Adidas Garments Tung Tat Garment Factory $0.22 75-87.5; 12.5 hour shifts; 6 or 7 days a week Employees find if late/resting/found talking; forced morning calisthenics; 8 workers to a dorm room
Wal-Mart/Kathie Lee handbags Ya Li Handbag, Ltd. $0.18 to $0.28 60; plus overtime up to 16-hour shifts Some workers not paid 3-4 months; forced overtime-stiff fines for refusal; overtime premium of 2 1/2 cents an hour; 12 to a dorm room; no benefits, no work contract; never heard of a Code of Conduct
Nike and Adidas Athletic Shoes Yue Yuen Factory $0.19 60-84 Forced overtime, no overtime premium paid; excessive noise pollution, fumes in the factory; no worker had heard of Nike or Adidas Corporate Code of Conduct
Wal-Mart/Kathie Lee Li Wen Factory $0.20 to $0.35 84; 12-hour shifts; 7 days a week; mandatory 24-hour shifts during rush times Forced overtime, severe fines for refusal to comply; no benefits, no overtime rate; no fire exits in dormitories; no work contract; workers have never heard of a Code of Conduct
Wal-Mart Tanjin Yuhua Garment Factory $0.23 60 Wal-Mart is pulling out of this factory and other publicly owned plants in the north to relocate its work to unregulated lower-wage privately owned sweatshops in the south of China
Ralph Lauren, Ellen Tracy/Linda Allard Iris Fashions $0.20 72-80; 12- to 15-hour shifts; 6 days week No union; workers paid a $0.06 an hour premium overtime; paid $0.02 for each shirt sewn
Espirit Label (Espirit Group) You Li Fashion Factory $0.13 93; 7.30 a.m. to mid-night; 7 days a week Workers afraid; under constant surveillance; no overtime pay; no benefits; sometimes employees need to work 24-hour shifts; 6 to 8 people to a dorm room; dorm is dark and dirty; never heard of a corporate Code of Conduct
Liz Claiborne and Bugle Boy Shanghai Shirt 2d Factory $0.25 66; 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.; 6 days a week No union; employees fined if they don't work overtime
Liz Claiborne Shanghai Jiang District Silk Fashions Ltd. $0.28 60-70; 11.5-hour shifts; 6 days a week  
J.C. Penny Zhong Mei Garment Factory $0.18 78; 11-hour shifts; 7 days a week No union; no benefits; workers have never heard of J.C. Penny Corporate Code of Conduct
Kmart Shanghai No. 4 Shirt Factory $0.28 70  
Cherokee Jeans Meiming Garment Factory $0.24 60-70 No benefits; workers have never heard of monitoring; 8 to a dorm room
Sears Tianjin Beifang Garment Factory $0.28 60 Sears is pulling out to relocate its production in lower-wage unregulated sweatshops in the south
Structure/The Limited Anda Garment Factory $0.32 70 No union; 6 workers to a dorm room

Source: "Company Profiles/Working Conditions: Factories in China Producing Goods for Export to the U.S.," "Made in China: Behind the Label," Charles Kernaghan of the National Labour Committee, March 1998, Wages are in U.S. dollars
bullet

if you think that the owners of the multi-national companies do not know the above working conditions then THINK TWICE!!! The owners have specially chosen such nations to operate in, to treat workers like cockroaches, so to reduce their costs

bullet

in fact, some companies in the above table, are willing to move because they think that new regulations are too strict!!!! (e.g. Sears) (SOURCE: "NO LOGO" by Naomi Klein)

bullet

in Asia, the lowest possible hourly wage which will allow a human to get his very basic needs (i.e. food, water, accommodation) is $0.87. However, the average wage of multi-national companies does not exceed $0.25 per hour. (SOURCE: "NO LOGO" by Naomi Klein)

bullet

Many multi-national companies only pay their workers 13 cents per hour only and work for about 70 hours . Compared with $7 which is the minimum hourly wage in the United States. (SOURCE: "NO LOGO" by Naomi Klein)

bullet

in the Philippines, many multi-national companies dismiss or threaten anyone who joins trade unions because they are considered "trouble-makers" (SOURCE: "NO LOGO" by Naomi Klein)

bullet

as a result, many Filipinos are terrified from joining trade unions (SOURCE: "NO LOGO" by Naomi Klein)

bullet

in Honduras, some pregnant female workers in multi-national companies are forced to abort (SOURCE: "NO LOGO" by Naomi Klein)

bullet

in some Mexican multi-nationals, pregnant women can't take time-off work to see their doctors (SOURCE: "NO LOGO" by Naomi Klein)

bullet

some pregnant women in Mexico are forced to work till 2 a.m. (SOURCE: "NO LOGO" by Naomi Klein)

bullet

the CD-ROM you have in front of you, is manufactured by 9-year-old Filipino girls who don't even know how to use the CD-ROMS which they manufacture themselves. Those girls live in small dorms (8 to a dorm) and earning a very low wage. (SOURCE: "NO LOGO", by Naomi Klein)

bullet

"The (US) federal government was among the purchasers of the baseballs imported from Haiti (duty free), stitched by women who work 11 hour days with a half-hour break in unbearable heat without running water or a working toilet, for 10 cents an hour if they can meet the quota (few can), using toxic materials without protection so that the U.S. importer can advertise proudly that their softballs are "hand-dipped for maximum bonding." The manufacturers are the wealthy Haitian families who supported (the 1991 military) coup and have gained new riches during the (so-called US) embargo." (SOURCE: Democracy Enhancement II, by Noam Chomsky)

bullet

"81 women burned to death locked into their factory in November 1993, which merited a few lines in the national press in the midst of much euphoria about Clinton's grand vision of a free market future in the Asia-Pacific region...60 workers killed in a fire a few weeks later in another foreign-owned factory...doubling of deaths in industrial accidents last year, with over 11,000 just in the first eight months. "Chinese officials and analysts say the accidents stem from abysmal working conditions, which, combined with long hours, inadequate pay, and even physical beatings, are stirring unprecedented labor unrest among China's booming foreign joint ventures," Sheila Tefft reported in the Christian Science Monitor."   (SOURCE: Democracy Enhancement, by Noam Chomsky)

bullet

In China, workers do not yet understand that in the capitalist utopia we are preparing for them, they are to be "beaten for producing poor quality goods, fired for dozing on the job during long work hours" and other such misdeeds, and locked into their factories to be burned to death. (SOURCE: Democracy Enhancement, by Noam Chomsky)

bullet

About half of the sales revenue gained from Nigeria's oil exports go to Shell- a multi-national company which has existed since the 1930s during colonial rule. The areas where Shell operates in Nigeria suffer from extreme poverty, high unemployment, pathetic health and education services, high rates of crime, electrical and water supply arriving by luck and -above all- very high level of pollution which has destroyed agriculture and fishing industry, which the indigenous people had depended on all of their lives. The officials in Shell blame the government while many political opponents believe that Shell and all of Nigeria's dictatorial governments have always been allies. (SOURCE: Al Jazeera Channel)

If the above workers were working in the northern rich countries, 7 days a week and 12 hours a day, they would have been earning a very high income. But those multi-nationals are exploiting them and trying to use them at the lowest costs possible and treating them like cockroaches.

Usually, the leaders of the nations which host multi-national companies are dictators who don't care about their own people. They gain support from America and the west by allowing those multi-nationals to violate human rights.

A good example is Laurent Kabila, who has been described by western leaders as an "opened" and "peace-loving" man while he has committed some of the worst crimes against human rights, including mass executions and rape. Click here to view a document from Human Rights Watch.

Multi-national companies claim that they are contributing to the economies of the nations they operate in. But that's a very funny joke.

 
bullet

On average, only 7% of the capital of multi-national companies goes to the nations they operate in, the rest goes to the rich countries (SOURCE: The Committee for the Elimination of Debt)

bullet

"The mistakes of Nigeria had occurred at the beginning of the nation and which now appear on the surface. But another factor is the role of multi-national corporations which have replaced the colonial authorities and which have reconnected the ex-colonies with their ex-colonists using a secret rope." (SOURCE: Wooly Shubenika, Nigerian Nobel Prize winner for Literature)

So even if the multi-nationals contribute by any means, their contribution is very small. To make matters even worse: they don't contribute- they drain the economy of the poor nations.

Multi-nationals are sucking the resources of the poor nations. They are sucking their land, labour, metal ores, oil... They are using the resources up which may have otherwise been used up by the nation's people or the nation's government. Well, I hear you say, do the poor nations have the ability to use their own resources?

Yes, they do. They do have enough capital to build at least a few factories of their own and benefit from all the profits from their own resources. But because they are corrupt, and only achieve the benefits of the western nations, they allow the multi-nationals to drain their economies.

A good example to disprove the above claim is the Suez Canal. In 1956, the Egyptian government nationalized the Suez Canal (i.e. made it belong to the Egyptian government) after it was controlled by British and French companies. Of course, the British and French did not like that and they decided to overthrow the Egyptian government at that time, led by Nasser. They claimed that the Egyptians would not be able to manage the Suez Canal. However, the French and British efforts to overthrow the Egyptian government failed and the Egyptian government later managed to prove that it could manage the Suez Canal (although with some foreign expertise) and the Suez Canal is still running until today.

The multi-nationals claim that the poor nations they are operating in will develop. But the truth proved otherwise:
bullet

Mexico, Thailand, South Korea, Philippines and Indonesia- are all nations which had hosted multi-national companies but they faced inflation and other economic problems (SOURCE: "NO LOGO", by Naomi Klein)

bullet

when democracy appeared in South Korea and Taiwan, new regulations ensuring respect to workers and their safety made the multi-nationals leave the two nations and look for other more dictatorial nations. Aren't they so kind? They don't want to waste money over ensuring their workers' safety!!! (SOURCE: "NO LOGO", by Naomi Klein)

bullet

"Very few Mexican companies have subsidiaries in other parts of the world, very few can be called "global".. economic globalisation in Mexico has gone in one direction only – the entry of foreign "global" companies into Mexico; companies which have legally taken possession of our natural resources and our land, and which have given us few benefits. In fact, these foreign companies are great monsters which are slowly killing off the small Mexican enterprises, or at least depriving them of the possibility of continued growth. This is because the foreign companies bring with them technology that the small ones don’t have access to; besides, the foreign companies have more capital to invest and have higher prestige in the market place" (SOURCE: Julio Espinoza, high school student, Mexico)

bullet

Despite international outcry, in November 1995 the Nigerian government hanged writer and dissident Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight others. Saro-Wiwa, a member of the Ogoni ethnic group of southern Nigeria whose Niger River delta land has long been exploited for its oil deposits, had brought the plight of the Ogonis to the attention of the international media. He led protests demanding that proceeds from oil mining in the Ogoni homeland be used to help the Ogoni people, and calling on Royal Dutch/Shell Group oil corporation to clean up the environmental damage it had inflicted. (SOURCE: Microsoft Encarta)

bullet

"An all inclusive, political system that guarantees equal access to resources was a threat to the ruling clique who enjoyed immensed wealth and power. To safeguard their continued hold to power they agitated tribal feelings and this lead to tribal clashes which saw shedding of blood. Unfortunately it was during the same period when SAP were introduced that saw the opening our market, privatisation of state corporations, and many saw it as move in the right direction because we had lost faith in the government managing our resources. We felt private management whether local or foreign would inject efficiency, increase productivity, boost economic growth and this would trickle down and benefit all. Due to prevailing corruption we favored foreign ownership because we felt they would conduct business more professionally devoid of corruption and free market was equated to fairness. What we failed to realize was that proponent of economic liberalization were motivated by a different agenda of quick profits unlike us who desired equity and sustainable use of our resources that guarantee a rise in our quality of life. Due to the harsh economic climate that our country is experiencing, multinationals have shown an interest in a few selected sector that guarantee quick returns. Many of the privatised state firms have been bought by local elite at throw away prices, majority Kenyans not having a chance to own a stake in our industries - as promised. With the opening of our market, our country has become a supermarket of foreign goods, which are cheaper, killing our local industries, rendering many more jobless. The disparity between the rich and poor has widened, and though some have benefited from the effect of liberalized economy majority continue to languish in poverty." (SOURCE: Kaminju Njoroge, information specialist, Kenya)
 

WHAT ABOUT COMMUNICATION?

Many talk about the spread of computers and the Internet throughout the world. However, such technology is mainly in the hands of the developed nations only.
bullet

Half of the people of this world (i.e. 3 billion people) HAVE NEVER HAD A TELEPHONE CALL THROUGHOUT THEIR LIVES!!!! (SOURCE: Discovery Channel, "Beyond 2000")

Before we can start talking about Internet in the poor nations, let's first talk about telephones...let's talk about electricity...let's talk education...let's talk about clean water...let's talk about ending starvation. When we solve just some of these problems, then we can talk about the Internet.
bullet

In Afghanistan, only 1 quarter of the population have access to clean water

bullet

In 1971, some 780 million people over the age of 15 were illiterate; 1989 estimates indicate that there are about 1.3 billion illiterates, heavily concentrated in the nonindustrial nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. (SOURCE: Microsoft Encarta 1997)

bullet

Three-quarters of the population of Africa, and one-half of Asia, is illiterate. (SOURCE: UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)

bullet

The 25 poorest nations of the world have rates of illiteracy in excess of 80 percent. (SOURCE: UNESCO)

bullet

Every minute, 18 people die from AIDS (SOURCE: WHO, World Health Organization)

bullet

"in absence of a reconfiguration of the balance of power, new technologies will largely reinforce the system as it stands. The rich will get richer, and more efficiently too." (SOURCE: Keith Winston)

WHAT ABOUT FOREIGN AID?

The foreign aid given by some rich nations to some poor nations is not given because the rich are very generous... it is because of political and economic benefits.

First of all, foreign aid is only given to nations with governments which are loyal to America or to the west. For example, there is no foreign aid to anti-American nations such as North Korea or Angola although they are extremely poor.

Secondly, the rich nations benefit from the foreign aid much more than the poor nations. The poor nations drop their trade barriers for the west and host multi-nationals in reward for this foreign aid.

More importantly, the poor nations usually import more than they earn from foreign aid:
bullet

between 1980 and 2000, Egypt earned $20 billion from the US through foreign loan but America earned more than $40 billion from Egypt, during the same period, by importing from America. Many goods imported from America may have been more cheaply imported from America's competitors or manufactured at home

bullet

In 1980 an IMF (International Monetary Fund) enquiry produced a report, "North-South: A Programme for Survival", saying how the economic problems in the poor nations could be solved. To succeed it needed the support of Northern countries, but they did not give it.

bullet

between 1990 and 2000, the Arab nations loyal to America (and that excludes Iraq, Sudan and Syria) have bought weapons for more than $600 billion, mainly from America. Most of these weapons were redundant and none of them were ever used

bullet

"The IMF-WB (International Monetary Fund-World Bank) are/were chartered at Bretton Woods in 1944 as federations to serve the common interests of their members, which are nation states—not global citizens, not corporations, not NGOs. The present rulers of the Bretton Woods institutions have subverted their historically reasonable and noble charter. They, along with their new partner, the WTO (World Trade Organization), are now in the service, not of their member nations, but of some ideological abstraction called "the global economy". In the clear and honest words of Renato Ruggiero, former director of the WTO, "We are no longer writing the rules of interaction among separate national economies. We are writing the constitution of a single global economy." (SOURCE: Herman Daly, professor at the University of Maryland, US, formerly senior economist at the World Bank)
 

WHAT CAN BE DONE?

bullet

"The total and immediate cancellation of Third World debt and increased, unconditional international social assistance is necessary before any system of fair trade can be truly effective." (SOURCE: The Success of Being Dangerous: Resisting Free Trade and Investment Regimes, by Gerald Greenfield)

bullet

In 1980 an IMF (International Monetary Fund) enquiry produced a report, "North-South: A Programme for Survival", saying how the economic problems in the poor nations could be solved. To succeed it needed the support of Northern countries, but they did not give it.

bullet

In 1977, Western nations opposed a UNESCO plan to set up a "New World Information and Communications Order" aiming to move control of radio and television services and newspaper networks away from the developed countries to the developing countries

bullet

"This is the message that is coming through so many of the posts I read at this forum - that the west (or the North if you prefer) has imposed a money based economic system and rules for participation upon the poorer nations of the world. This process has destroyed traditional and local ways of distributing wealth in favour of a cash economy ruled by international forces. To my mind we need a new economic paradigm; one that recognises the broader meaning of wealth. This new paradigm must allow for and measure increases in wealth which are decoupled from measures of monetary growth, population growth or indebtedness." (SOURCE: John Vandenberg, town planner, Australia)

bullet

"Rising inequalities pose a serious threat of a political backlash against globalization, one that is as likely to come from the North as well as from the South." (SOURCE: 1997 Report on the UN Conference on Trade and Development)

bullet

"The numbers are shockingly high, amid the affluence- progress must be more evenly distributed." (SOURCE: James Gustave Speth, administrator of the UN Development Program, talking about the growing disparities between the rich and poor)

bullet

"I see the effects on the majority of the people - the 70% poor, absolute poor and lower middle class. Have they gained anything? What do they need? Kentucky fried chicken or the Complan total energy food, or a simple meal three times a day?

Safe drinking water, or aerated water for Rs.15 per litre [1$=RS.43] or Pepsi & Coca-Cola? Houses with Italian Marbles, or two room house with a toilet? Schools with roof, teachers and toilet, or education in Cambridge, Oxford or Massachussetts? Air-conditioned hospitals or PHCs with Doctors and medicine? Daewoo, Ford and Mitshubishi car,s or a good public transport system?" (SOURCE: Thomas Franco, Banker by profession and activist by practice, India)

bullet

"Instead of adjusting the local and national development to the global trends and patterns, a national developmental strategy must take the local and national needs, particularities and potentialities as the bases for a more articulated integration into globalization" (SOURCE: Rafael Arias, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, currently doing a Ph.D. at the Geography Department of the University of Minnesota, US)

bullet

"The political and intellectual leadership we have has been the creation of the colonial and neo-colonial framework of governance that dances to the tune of its creators. In this context, African political leaders in general and those of us who were thought at the expense of the 'poor' in particular, need to do our own 'soul-searching' and redefine our role in creating the so-much desired 'African Leadership'. Some encouraging signs have started to be seen in recent years. But, we still have a long way to go and there is a critical role to be played by the 'African elite' including the Africans in Diaspora." (SOURCE: Desta Mebratu, engineer, Ethiopia)

bullet

"….most governments resisted pro-poor reforms. A predictable macroeconomic framework, social sector spending favoring rural areas, introducing a rule-based legal system are among the components that need to be addressed in most of the countries concerned. So why did most governments not do it? Because in environment of neo-patrimonial clientelism (Jean-Francois Bayart) it is the (political) elites that benefit from economic inefficiency. They have lived so nicely (see Mobuto) that they were foolish to change their economic systems… Therefore, it is correct that the World Bank and many others (e.g. USA, France) helped to sustain an inefficient economic system to the detriment of the poor in these countries. In poor policy environments Structural Adjustment Program often helped governments not to adjust, because huge amounts of resources were granted without applying the conditionality... It is not structural adjustment which is the problem but the failure to adjust." (SOURCE: Wolfgang Fengler, World Bank ‘Young Professional’)

bullet

"Choices which constrain the ability of the wealthiest to get even richer may be more efficient for the full range of ends to which a globally integrated economy should be aimed than free market choices. Governmental, and non-governmental, non-market mechanisms may be more efficient than market mechanisms to important ends. The priority of economic efficiency over other efficiencies cannot be the founding assumption, but must be open to debate." (SOURCE: Chris Lowe, a historian of Africa working as an editor in Portland, Oregon, USA)

bullet

"The strongest proponents of globalization happen to be the nations having the greatest wealth which have benefitted disproportionately from the process described by Heilbroner. Yet they also happen to be democracies, in many cases, ones that are continuously trying to effect greater social justice. Government is used to reappropriate wealth in order to effect greater social equality even as it enforces the sometimes contrary value of preserving individual freedoms. I would think that the aim of globalization should resemble this dynamic within capitalist democracies. If so, that requires the empowerment of a United Nations (or the creation of a golbal government) to moderate the least attractive outcomes of globalization according to the values spelled out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). In brief, political will is required to effect social justice from what is otherwise an amoral process called M-C-M', i.e., globalization." (SOURCE: Roger Bowen, president of the State University of New York at New Paltz, New York State, US)

bullet 
"The combined effect of democratisation and localisation is a radical re-ordering of the domestic arrangement of political power in ways which fundamentally contradict – and therefore weaken – the global arrangement of political power under free trade and investment regimes. This in turn creates the political conditions in which an effective, popular counter-project can be launched to reverse the globalisation project. Only through such a project would we then be dangerous enough for the capitalists' worst fears to come true." (SOURCE: The Success of Being Dangerous: Resisting Free Trade and Investment Regimes, by Gerald Greenfield)
bullet

"Simply forcing, or even just endorsing, for the opening up of barriers and let the market do the job will not do any good especially for the many people in disadvantageous positions….. Market system is no panacea. Market does fail in some areas (e.g. housing for the poor, protecting the "commons"). We need to address market failures by keeping some areas in the public hands (government or communities) and out of market. Let the market operate in the areas where it does well….. we should not be in a hurry to liberalize all economies" (SOURCE: Wicak Sarosa, PhD student, Indonesia/US)

 CONCLUSION

The British, French, Spanish and Dutch have all had their own Empires through which they had enslaved many people and controlled their resources. They claimed that those people were uncivilized and were unable to govern themselves. And during the Cold War, America and Russia used to invade other nations claiming that they were "restoring order" or "fighting for freedom".

The poor should depend on themselves not on those imperialists. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the north controlled the south through colonialism and imperialism. During the 20th century, they controlled many southern nations claiming that they were "restoring order" or "fighting for freedom". And now, they are coming back. But this time they are talking about "globalization" and "co-ordination".

As long as anyone who distrusts the West or criticizes globalization is described as, "radical", "trouble-maker", "extremist", "closed-minded".... the problems of this world will never be solved.

As long as anyone who supports the west and accepts their dictations is described as, "moderate", "open-minded", "wise".... the poor people will face tragedy.

As long as the rich governments have a lot of influence in world politics and they can affect many decisions. e.g. Britain, France and America, all have a "veto" which means they can block any decision taken by the United Nations Security Council.

As long as the rulers of the Third World only care about satisfying the western governments....as long as those tyrants are described as "moderate", "open-minded", "wise"..... there will be little hope for the poor. This world will be a graveyard for the poor.

As long as you, me and everyone else keeps on buying "Nike" shoes simply because of the tick... as long as we keep on buying jewellery from those who have robbed it from the Third World.... then the rich will become richer and the poor will become poorer.

Remember, the rich nations are not stupid: they know how to achieve benefits. They would not have agreed to globalization if it meant that money would be redistributed to benefit the poor rather than the rich.

And as we all simply watch, comment or just remain quiet.... hundreds are becoming unemployed, homeless, hungry, thirsty....

And when the day comes and people will say, "Well, maybe globalization was a mistake". And by the time that happens, the poor will suffer more and the rich will prosper. The rich will say, "It is not our fault. It is someone else's fault......." Yeah. Why should they care? That is justice isn't it? And as Thraschymus had said:

"JUSTICE IS THE ADVANTAGE OF THE STRONGEST"

And those "wise" and "open-minded" people will one day learn that they have made a mistake. But that will be too late. And as Hegel had said:

"HISTORY TEACHES US THAT NO ONE HAS EVER LEARNT ANYTHING FROM HISTORY"

And hoping that at least some of these words did not enter one ear and leave the other.... remember the Native American saying:

"WE DON'T INHERIT FROM OUR ANCESTORS....

WE BORROW THEM FROM OUR CHILDREN"

Other sites to visit:

Globalization and Human Rights

Economic Globalization

World Bank Online Debate

The Passion for Free Markets

The Tyranny of Globalisation