Germanic warriors decisively defeated Roman forces at the
Battle of Teutoburg Forest.
The Frankish king Clovis overran the Roman province of Gaul.
Clovis introduced features of Roman life into western Germany.
The Treaty of Verdun divided Charlemagne’s empire into three
kingdoms. The German kingdom soon divided into five duchies.
Otto I was crowned Holy Roman emperor in Aachen.
A dispute between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII marked the
beginning of a series of civil wars contesting church power.
The Hanseatic League was the supreme commercial and military
power in northern Germany.
Martin Luther started the Protestant Reformation.
The Peace of Augsburg recognized the right of princes to
choose Lutheranism or Catholicism for their lands.
The Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years’ War.
Frederick the Great became king of Prussia and began building
Prussia into a great power.
The Holy Roman Empire came to an end with the establishment of
the Confederation of the Rhine.
The German Confederation was formed at the Congress of Vienna.
Revolutions swept across Germany. The first German national
assembly met at Frankfurt in the hopes of creating a more united country.
Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck realized his dream
of a united Germany as the German Empire was founded.
Germany was forced to accept harsh terms under the Treaty of
Versailles that brought an end to World War I. The Weimar Republic was
Adolf Hitler and the Nazis assumed power.
Germany invaded Poland, starting World War II.
Allied armies occupied Germany and divided it into four zones
of occupation. Nazi war criminals were tried at Nuremberg.
Germany was divided into East Germany and West Germany.
Berlin, in East Germany, was also divided between the two countries.
East Germany became a Communist state, while West Germany
became a parliamentary republic.
The East German government built the Berlin Wall.
The Communist government in East Germany collapsed, and the
Berlin Wall was dismantled. Thousands of East Germans emigrated to West
Germany was formally reunified under the government of the
former West Germany.
In a close election, Chancellor Helmut Kohl was returned to
power for a fourth consecutive term.