about AD 1000
Vikings explored the coast of Newfoundland.
John Cabot discovered the rich fishing grounds off Canada’s
Jacques Cartier claimed Canada for France.
French colonists founded the first settlement in Canada, in
present-day Nova Scotia. They developed thriving fish and fur trades.
The Hudson’s Bay Company, an English company, opened its first
fur-trading posts in Canada.
The English captured Montréal during the French and Indian
War. France formally surrendered its Canadian lands in 1763.
An American invasion of Canada during the American Revolution
failed. Many American Loyalists moved to Canada in the following years.
Great Britain divided Canada into predominantly French Lower
Canada and predominantly English Upper Canada.
Revolts against the colonial government failed in both Lower
and Upper Canada.
The British North America Act was passed, creating the
Dominion of Canada.
The Canadian Pacific Railroad was completed, uniting Canada.
Canada achieved complete independence from Great Britain.
Nearly 1.5 million Canadians fought in World War II. After the
war, a new wave of European immigrants helped transform Canada into an
Québec voters rejected a proposal to negotiate their
province’s independence from the rest of Canada.
A new constitution was approved by all the provinces except
The Meech Lake Accord, which sought to win Québec’s acceptance
of the new constitution while guaranteeing the rights of French Canadians, was
rejected by Manitoba and Newfoundland.
A second attempt at constitutional revision, the Charlottetown
Accord, was defeated in a nationwide referendum.
Canada entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) along with Mexico and the United States.
A second referendum on the independence of Québec was voted
down by a narrow margin (50.6 percent) of Québec voters.